Features of growing fern on the site
If you want to improve the garden and decorate the plot, an amazing fern would be perfect for such purposes. But in order for this unique plant to stick, feel comfortable and delight you, learn the rules and features of its cultivation in the open field.
Ferns are the oldest plants that appeared on Earth more than four hundred million years ago, and they determined the appearance of our planet in those distant times. The ancient ferns were treelike and huge, forming dense thickets. And such plants were one of the few that managed to preserve a huge species diversity, similar to that which was in the distant past.
Ferns have a rather complicated structure. Although the species differ in their forms of existence, life cycles and external properties, their appearance is characteristic and well recognizable. Plants can be tree and herbaceous.The body consists of several parts: a scape, roots (adnexal and vegetative), a modified shoot and leaf blades. The leafy organs are called wyami, and one looks like a long stem with often carved feathers. Leaves spread along the ground or support, setting the characteristic appearance of the plants.
Ferns are found on almost the entire surface of the Earth, with the exception of regions of the far north and permafrost. They grow in forests in the soil, as well as on branches and trunks of trees, in reservoirs, in swamps, in rocky crevices, in gardens and even on the walls of houses. But especially a lot of fern plants in the subtropics and the tropics, that is, where it is always humid and warm enough.
Common species and their features
There are numerous types of ferns, but the most popular and noteworthy gardeners are:
- Davallia has triangular-shaped fronds of vaia and fleecy root processes spreading on the soil. Especially popular are the Dallas Canarian, Marisa, bubble, dense.
- The centipede is a winter-hardy variety with medium-sized leathery leaves and creeping golden roots.The common centipede is edible: the rhizomes have a sweetish taste and are widely used in traditional medicine and cooking.
- Pteris has significant differences from other varieties. It has luxurious, wing-shaped leaves that can have a variety of colors: motley, white-green, patterned, yellow-green. Pteris are considered popular and well-known varieties of tape, multi-cut, xiphoid, trembling.
- Grozdnik received this name because of the similarity of the tips of the spore-bearing parts of the shoots with bunches of grapes. Gardeners love this species for its unpretentiousness and resistance to temperature extremes, and the most popular varieties are virgin creeper, strong, semi-lunar, southern, chamomish, mountainous, simple.
- Adiantum is a beautiful ornamental look, sometimes called “venus hair” because of its similarity to wavy curls. Leaves pinnate, have a length of about 40-45 centimeters, and the roots are black, creeping.
- The leaflet is an unusual variety, very different from all the other leaves, which are whole and have a lanceolate shape, reaching 5-7 cm in width and about 45-50 centimeters in length.In gardening the following varieties are widely used: Japanese, common leafberry, crispa, marginatum.
- Orlyak has shoots, each growing from rhizomes. And the height of the plant is about 50-70 cm.
- Aspelenium looks very original due to the long smooth whole leaves with wavy edges. The most famous subspecies are the antique, nesting and onioniferous.
- The ostrich is named so for a reason: it has leafy parts resembling fluffy ostrich feathers. There is a plant in the Far East, the Caucasus, in Siberia.
- The thyroid has a short rather thick rhizome of a cylindrical shape, and on the surface there is a rosette with a bunch of long leaves, painted in a dark green shade.
An interesting fact: a flowering fern is a myth, since plants that reproduce by spores cannot, in principle, bloom. But often young thin leaves are taken as flowers, appearing in groups and resembling inflorescences.
Preparing for planting
First you need to decide on the choice of planting material. There are a lot of species, and you are required to choose one that will feel comfortable in your particular region and in the current climatic conditions. To do this, study the detailed information about the plant and consult with the seller of the store.But remember that the vast majority of ferns grow in shady, fairly warm and humid places. And it is desirable to buy seedlings in specialized departments and stores, choosing healthy and mature shoots with foliage: they adapt faster and do not die.
If material is selected, determine the landing site. It should be shady and protected from direct sunlight. But still glimpses of the sun are permissible and not harmful, so you can plant a fern near a fairly large garden tree with a spreading crown. But the site must be protected from winds and drafts, as strong gusts can damage delicate leaves.
If there is an artificial reservoir on the site, for example, a small pond, then plant the plant along its banks to ensure the optimum level of humidity. And to create an original natural composition, use stones or a fallen tree: shoots will also feel comfortable next to such elements of the landscape.
Equally important is the soil. Although ferns are not very whimsical and can get used to any soil, it is still worth paying attention to the composition and properties so that the plant grows and develops actively.A good option would be a light and loose enough soil in which water should not stagnate: otherwise, rotting of rhizomes will begin. River sand is allowed to provide drainage, but preferably clean.
How to grow a fern on the site? To he rooted in the garden soil, it is important to carry out the landing correctly. It begins in the second half of spring, when the last frosts have passed, and the temperature returned to normal. Prepare holes for seedlings, twice the size of the roots of the shoots. The distance between the pits depends on the characteristics of the plant: for example, at least 30 centimeters should be left between tall varieties.
Fill the wells with soil mixture containing approximately equal amounts of sand, peat and leaf soil. The addition of a small amount of compost is welcome. Capacities with seedlings are filled with water to soften the soil, after which the plants are carefully removed. Hold the leaves with extreme caution and do not seek to shake off the remnants of the soil from the roots. Place the seedling in the groove, sprinkle with prepared soil, gently tamp it and peel it with peat.
Peculiarities of care
Let's consider the basic rules of care for a fern growing on your garden plot:
- Watering. Soil should almost always remain moist, so water the seedlings quite abundantly, especially in the first months after planting and on arid, sunny summer days. In no case should the soil dry up! Spraying the leaves is also very helpful.
- Loosening. Exercise it regularly - after each watering. Such manipulations will make the soil lighter and prevent stagnant moisture. At the same time, remove the weeds that interfere with the growth of the fern.
- Mulching. Periodically, after watering and loosening, mulch the soil, using for this purpose spruce lapnik or needles, which will enrich the soil and make it more useful for the fern. And still mulching will reduce the amount of weeds and will not allow water to evaporate prematurely.
- Feeding. If the soil is nutritious, it is not necessary to enrich it, but in poor soil it is possible to introduce complex organic or mineral fertilizers in liquid form. Feed shoots preferably in periods of active growth of leaf parts and the formation of new processes.
- Approximately once in one or two years ferns quickly spreading over the soil surface must be thinned, removing damaged, old and weakened shoots.
- If the plant is frost-resistant, then additional preparation for the winter season is not required. But the thermophilic species should be covered. Soil around the bush should be covered with leaves or straw, then cover the whole bush and place the covering material on top.
Tip: To make the landscape design a site of originality, try using ferns to create compositions, for example, rutaries and rockeries. Combine different varieties, use other plants that grow in similar conditions.
Ferns are propagated in several ways:
- Root mustache. The method is suitable for species with such antennae, creeping along the ground (something like strawberries). They are separated, placed in the soil and watered. Rooting occurs fairly quickly.
- Division of the bush. The bulbs are separated and seated separately. This method is used in the spring season.
- Brood buds. The method is not simple and time consuming: separate the kidneys (small hillocks located in the lower parts of the leaves), place them in moss or peat, cover with glass containers, moistening the soil.After the sprouts appear, the banks are removed, the mature shoots are planted in permanent places.
- Disputes. The method is common, but complicated. In the spring, cut a sheet with kidney tubercles, put it in a paper bag and dry it. Approximately in the middle of winter, collect spores similar to small motes, scatter them on the ground, without deepening, cover them with film or glass and wait for the sprouts to appear (this takes about a month).
If you decide to grow a fern in the garden, now you will definitely be able to fully care for it, following the advice given in the article.
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