How many time zones?
Planet Earth, rotating around its axis, is illuminated by the Sun at different times in different areas, so it is noon for everyone at one time. In order to take into account these temporary differences, time zones are invented.
How many time zones in the world
There are two concepts of time zones:
- Geographical. These are conditional stripes - meridians having a width and dividing the earth's surface. How many time zones are there on earth? A total of 24. The zero is the meridian passing through the London Greenwich Observatory.
- Administrative. They are also called time zones. Each of them has its own standard time set by law. These are the territories of the earth's surface, formed with regard to the rotation of the planet Earth and having the same local time. They differ following from previous by an hour. How many time zones are there in the world? There are 24 of them, respectively. They practically coincide with geographical time zones. And the Greenwich meridian is also a reference point. And the time within his zone is called "world." The countdown goes from west to east.
The boundaries of time zones pass along major rivers, administrative and interstate borders.
Daylight saving time
There is also a system for daylight saving time. In the first case - an hour ahead, and in the second - an hour ago. EU countries, as well as Turkey, Egypt and many others use it. And Russia and most of the CIS countries have recently abandoned this system. This is due to the fact that there is a lot of evidence of its detrimental effect on human health.
Time stability is much more useful, it does not harm human biological clocks. No need to adapt to the new mode of sleep and wakefulness. In addition, there is no need to change schedules and reconfigure equipment to enterprises and transport services.
History of the introduction of time zones
Up until the mid-19th century, every large city lived according to its time. And the settlements and small towns located next to it were equal in it. Then they lived by the sun. In those days, there was no such high-speed transport as trains and airplanes. We rode on horses and carts, and such transport cannot cover such a long distance to cover several time zones. So, it was acceptable to determine the time by the shadow.
When they began to build railways and started up the first trains, everything changed immediately. Trains traveled the distance so quickly that it became difficult to schedule them accurately. It was difficult to find out when each of them would arrive at a particular station, which was significantly remote from the point of departure. When sending telegrams it was difficult to calculate the time for the message to arrive on time.
European countries solved this problem in their own way. They all began to live according to a single time. It was tied to the solar time of the main city. The railways and telegraphs of the Russian Empire worked on Petersburg time. And some cities still kept their countdown.
The countries of the New World, at that time the so-called America, were plunged into complete confusion. All railway companies worked there on their own time. And each of the states lived in its own way. As a result, big problems arose in those cities where the railway lines of different companies passed.
The solution to the problem came later. Canadian engineer Sandford Fleming worked all his life on the railway. He laid lines between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and, by coincidence, was late for a train in 1976.After that, the engineer decided to certainly find a solution to the problem of time reference throughout the world.
During the meeting of the Royal Canadian Institute, which was held on February 8, 1879, Sandford Fleming proposed to divide the entire surface of the globe into 24 zones. This idea was not taken seriously. But he continued to propagate it until 1884. In October, the International Meridian Conference was held. It was attended by representatives from 25 countries. There was the adoption of the Washington Convention on time zones and universal time. The concept of standard time was introduced. The Greenwich meridian was adopted as the zero. It became the starting point of the longitude on the nautical and geographical maps. But despite Fleming's repeated proposals to consolidate this convention of dividing into time zones, this issue was not even put to the vote.
The process of introducing time zones began with the United States and Canada, and it took several decades until all countries in the world switched to standard time. This was completed in the 20s of the 20th century. The reason for such a protracted process was the outbursts of signs of self-government in some countries and cities.Now it seems ridiculous, but then people fought for the fact that solar time is much more convenient and more accurate than the lap time. Despite the difference in minutes, the heads of cities did not want to switch to it.
Also many times the boundaries of the meridians moved. There were cases when some cities were divided into two time zones and had a time difference of one hour.
After the collapse of the USSR, the republics that were formed were determined for a long time what time zone they would belong to and whether to make day / winter transitions.
Country time zones
Let's find out how many time zones are divided into the largest countries in the world.
The maximum number of time zones covers, oddly enough, France. The country itself is located within the same meridian, but along with the islands belonging to it it occupies 12 time zones.
The United States of America occupies 11 time zones.
The Russian Federation is currently located in 9 time zones.
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