How to extract gas?
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Natural and shale gases are highly efficient energy carriers. The use of gas fuel allows introducing new efficient methods of heat transfer, to form more economical and high-performance thermal units.
How to extract gas (natural)?
Natural gas is the most efficient, and most importantly environmentally friendly fuel.
The search for gas deposits begins with the compilation of a geological map, which indicates the structure of the sections of the upper earth's crust.
Gas-bearing strata are formed from rocks characterized by their porous structure (sand, porous limestone, etc.). Gas deposits are a concentration of hydrocarbons that fill the pores in gas bearing formations.
Most gas deposits have the form of a crust, dome-shaped upward. Gas is contained in a domed seam underground. In the form of a cap gas is accumulated in the upper layers of the reservoir. In the lower horizons is oil or reservoirwater.
If the gas content in the pores is high, then such deposits are called a field. The exploitation of such a field is economically viable and industrial.The thickness of the gas-bearing formations can reach hundreds of meters.
To extract gas from the earth�s interior, it is necessary to drill a well that consists of
- mouths (top of the well);
- bottomhole (bottom of the well).
You can drill a hole with an electric drill, which quickly rotates and destroys rocks.
Then, a column of gushing pipes is lowered inside the formed well, along which gas moves from the bottom to the mouth.
Next, to supply gas to consumers it is necessary to process it. Natural gas processing consists of:
- drying - separation of gas from moisture;
- cleaning - the release of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide;
- odorization - giving the smell of gas.
How is shale gas produced?
Shale gas is considered an artificial gas, which is obtained as a result of thermal processing of oil shale in furnaces. Shale gas is characterized by a high content of carbon dioxide.
In terms of physical properties, the purified shale gas is almost the same as natural gas. Not purified shale gas carries a huge amount of impurities, which complicates the process of its processing.
The main method of shale gas production is hydraulic fracturing.This extraction technology causes enormous harm to the environment due to the chemical composition of the drilling fluid.
Drilling fluid is injected into the gas-bearing formation under high pressure (500-1500 atm.).After that, the formation of cracks in the rock with a size of up to 20 m occurs. Now the gas can freely flow through the channel made to enter the solution. These cracks can disappear under the mass of rocks, so such faults are made up to 10 times annually.
Shale gas processing technology does not differ from the processing of natural gas.
Disadvantages of shale gas production:
- groundwater pollution;
- seismic hazard;
- soil and surface water pollution;
- emissions into the atmosphere.
Prospects for shale gas production are very high. At the moment, the feasibility of shale gas production is a global problem. Whether it is worth polluting the environment and harming human health for the sake of highly efficient fuel is rather a rhetorical question.
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