The term "working conditions" is interpreted differently. This concept may refer exclusively to the external objective environment surrounding a person during work, or all factors that affect the standard of living of workers and the process of reproducing labor. Most often, working conditions are all factors that act in the process of labor per person. There are several of their groups on which the production environment is based:
- sanitary and hygienic;
- organizational and economic.
Consider the features of each of them.
Sanitary and hygienic factors of working conditions determine the influence of the external environment on a person. An employer who is interested in able-bodied employees is obliged to monitor the compliance of these factors with current standards and standards. Activities aimed at improving working conditions, primarily involves the improvement of technology and technology, as well as production processes.
The microclimate of the production environment includes humidity, temperature, movement and air pressure. Reduced or increased vs. normal production factors of working conditions cause additional costs of human energy, which leads to a decrease in labor productivity. In the modern world, noise is one of the most common environmental factors. It is characterized by a sound level measured in decibels (dB) and a frequency measured in hertz (Hz). If the sound power is the same, then high-frequency sounds have a greater impact on the person. High noise levels are harmful to the cardiovascular and nervous systems, digestive organs and blood pressure. Vibration that goes beyond the limits of the norm causes diseases of the joints, and may even disrupt the human motor reflexes. To reduce the intensity of vibration and noise, walls and ceilings are veneered with sound-insulating and sound-absorbing coatings.
Aesthetic conditions factors
Aesthetic conditions affect the worker by creating an emotional production background. Industrial interior design is an architectural and artistic interior space of industrial buildings. When creating it take into account:
- volume and area of the building,
- the purpose of the building
- key moments of the technological process
- nature of equipment
- mode of work and rest of employees and many other features of work.
An important role in creating a favorable production environment is played by the color design of the premises. It is a means of transmitting information and a means of providing psychological comfort.
In the process of using color to transmit information, a combination of no more than three colors is justified:
- for governing bodies (yellow, orange);
- for parts serving as the background of the workpiece (cream, blue, etc.)
- for other painted surfaces (lettuce and green-blue).
The aesthetic factors that determine working conditions also include the planting of greenery. Trees, flowers, shrubs clean the air, regulate thermal conditions, reduce noise, reduce dust, decorate and create comfort. When choosing plants for landscaping industrial enterprises are guided by their hygienic properties. Rest places for workers performing monotonous operations are decorated with flowers with warm colors.
Psychophysiological factors affecting the working conditions - the amount of dynamic, physical and static loads, the pace of work, work posture, attention intensity, monotony, neuro-emotional stress, physical and aesthetic discomfort. The regulated combination of mental and physical exertion has a significant effect on reducing worker fatigue.
Socio-psychological factors in the formation of working conditions, characterize the relationship in the team. They create the appropriate mental attitude and affect the performance of employees.
Efficiency demonstrates the quantitative side of work and is associated with the efficiency of labor. It is limited and depends on the amount of energy that a person can expend without harming the body. The loss of energy is characterized by excessive fatigue, loss of strength, decreased coordination and perception of remembering, representation, imagination, etc. Therefore, it is important to take into account the emotions of a person, caused not only by personal work, but by the aesthetic design of the environment, production and personal relationships.Reducing the adverse effects of psychophysical factors is achieved: a decrease in the physical efforts of employees, optimization of the pace of work, selection of the most optimal posture, reduction of neuro-psychological stress, and others.
Organizational and economic factors
A change in the rhythm of work leads to tension in the nervous system and the loss of a previously acquired rhythm, which requires the development of a new stereotype and an increase in the time it takes to perform labor operations. Arrhythmia is an abrupt change of small physical and neuro-mental efforts and a low rate of work at a fast pace and accelerated efforts, which has a very negative effect on the health and efficiency of workers. For the organization of rhythmic work during a shift, it is necessary to respect the hourly schedule, when daily loads are distributed according to the physiological patterns of human development. The load of the first and last hours should be lower by 10-15% than in the middle of the working day.
The rhythm of labor during the day, month, year is ensured by improving operational production planning, which allows workers to be evenly loaded throughout the entire period and eliminate deadlines.
In the modern world to the performer receives a huge amount of information, which leads to constant neuro-mental stress. Scientifically based labor standards are designed to optimize neuro-mental stress. They are established taking into account the amount of information that can be quickly perceived, analyzed and, on its basis, make the right decision.
The alternation of different types of load - this is another way to reduce neuro-mental stress. It is recommended to alternate: work of different levels of complexity and intensity, physical work with neuro-mental. The maintenance of a favorable psychological climate among all members of the team plays a huge role in reducing the neuropsychic load.
Due to the fact that the production conditions of labor are analyzed from the standpoint of their influence on the worker’s body, the assessment of their actual condition should be based on the effects of this influence. When analyzing it is important to consider all factors of working conditions.
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