Top 10 women who changed this world
Most often, men are headed by well-known research institutes, serious technological industries and modern computer developments. But despite this persistent gender imbalance, at all times there have been women who have managed to prove that nothing is impossible for them. Here is a list of 10 representatives of the fair sex who are famous throughout the world for their scientific achievements.
Of course, devoting one's life to science means abandoning the many benefits available. Being a scientist for a woman was difficult at all times, but there are unique discoveries that, despite the thorny path to their creation, forever changed the world.
- Maria Curie. It is spoken of as a physicist, a chemist, and a man who, over the years of his work, has brought many useful and important things to the industry. But perhaps the most famous are Curie's studies of the influence of radioactive waves on malignant tumors.This breakthrough in the science of that time became the starting point of helping millions of people suffering from cancer, giving them a chance for a cure and a full life.
- Mary Anning. While still a teenager, Mary and her brother walked by the river. There, playing, the girl found the skeleton of a huge beast. Only 10 years later it was established that he belonged to the ichthyosaur. Since that time, Anning became fascinated with paleontology, and her work radically changed the picture of the world of the early 19th century. By the age of 30, the remains of a plesiosaur, pterodactyl, and dimorphodon were already in the collection of a young woman. And although such discoveries did not hit her compatriots at all, they still became the basis for understanding many facts, ranging from the actual age of the Earth to the origin of man and his role in this world.
- Ada Lovelace. Of course, female programmers no longer surprise anyone, but in the middle of the 19th century, a fragile girl, well versed in the exact sciences, was a real exhibit. Ada, daughter of the famous writer George Gordon Byron, created the world's first algorithm for a mechanical computer. She was sure that such machines had a future, and they would not only help calculate, but also greatly simplify the life of people. Very soon, the words Lovelace began to be confirmed.
- Lisa Meitner.She is called the "mother of the atomic bomb." This famous woman in the circles of physicists proposed the theory of the structure of nuclei, which marked the beginning of the atomic era in the history of mankind, and made it possible to discover the potential of nuclear energy. Meitner theoretically substantiated the creation of the atomic bomb and nuclear-powered power plants. But, despite the specifics of her profession, Lisa was an open pacifist all her life.
- Hedi lamarr Once this girl starred in the film, which caused a scandal in the Third Reich, because it contained too explicit sex scenes. But besides that, Heady in 1941 patented a means of communication that could change the frequency of broadcasting and, thus, make it difficult for the enemy to intercept the signal. At first it was used in American torpedoes, and later this invention became the basis for mobile and wireless communications.
- Gertrude Elyon. Her path to science was very difficult, because before the Second World War, it was not easy for a woman to find a job in a serious organization. For a long time she was a teacher, and only a few years later she was able to get a job in the laboratory, where she began to conduct various studies with a team of scientists.Due to a long and painstaking work, the well-known drug acyclovir was discovered, which has become a new word in the treatment of herpetic infections, as well as several very important drugs that make it possible to fight malaria and leukemia. For this Gertrude was awarded the Nobel Prize.
- Grace Hopper. Who knows how the history of programming would develop if this strong-willed woman had not put her hand to him. Working as a team of men in the US Navy, she first introduced the term “debugging” - that is, the search for errors in the program. Hopper is also the author of the world's first “compiler” - a program that converts the source code of a program written in a programming language into a simpler, “understandable” for a computer. For the great services and dedicated work, Grace was dismissed only at the age of 80 years.
- Barbara McClintock. In the distant 1948, no one knew about the movement of genes. This is exactly what this famous woman, a cytogenetic scientist, discovered. But her arguments and research crossed the accepted theory of chromosomes, according to which they are “stationary”, and mutations and pathologies are very rare cases.But in the 70s of the 20th century, additional research tools and technology became available, which confirmed McClintock's theory. Thus, the world first learned about the nature of genetic diseases.
- Dorothy Hodgkin. Over the years of her work, a biochemist by training, Dorothy made a structural analysis of penicillin and vitamin B12 using a device for fluoroscopy, thus finding out their structure and role in the body. She also researched insulin, followed by hundreds of lectures around the world, during which she explained why and how important this biological component is for diabetics. It was for research on biologically active substances that Hodgkin won the Nobel Prize in 1964.
- Stephanie Kwolek. Working in the chemical industry, Stephanie worked for a long time to find a material that would be light but durable so that it could be used for automobile tires. But in the process of experimentation, Kwolek and his assistants invented the fiber, which was called Kevlar. It turned out to be 5 times stronger than steel and began to be used for the manufacture of body armor, thus saving the lives of many police, military and firefighters.
The world is amazing and beautiful.It is difficult to imagine what it would be like if these brilliant women did not contribute to the most important industries. Fortunately, the story keeps their names, reminding humanity of how important and complex any innovations and discoveries are.
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