What is a security system?
The history of mankind is replete with interstate conflicts, bloody wars. It is no coincidence that since ancient times, countries have tried to conclude agreements among themselves that guarantee the safety of the parties. So what is a security system, what are the stages of its creation?
The first to put forward the �Eternal Peace Project in Europe� in 1713 by Abbot Saint-Pierre, proposing to resolve controversial issues in an international court. J.-J. Rousseau believed that the creation of the European Republic would be a guarantee of peace. In the XIX century. the embodiment of the dream of European monarchies to eliminate the threat of revolution was the Holy Alliance.
In the twentieth century. The First World War pushed for the creation of a security system, the embodiment of which was the League of Nations (1919). But many unresolved problems led to another war.
Attempts to create a collective security system were undertaken by the Soviet Union, which was not a member of the League of Nations. The USSR proposed the conclusion of non-aggression treaties, developed a draft collective security based on the equality of all participants.In 1934 the country was admitted to the League of Nations. The USSR proposed the conclusion of the Eastern Regional Pact to counter Germany, but it was not adopted. The Munich Agreement (1938) and the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939) actually plunged Europe into a war.
Creating a collective security system
The Second World War showed the need to create a universal system that guarantees the preservation of peace. So what is a collective security system? In 1945, the United Nations (UN) was formed, in which the principles of a universal (universal) system were announced:
- non-use of force, preservation of territorial integrity, non-interference in internal affairs;
- the organization of collective measures to prevent acts of aggression;
- the adoption of arms reduction measures.
The UN Charter also provides for the possibility of creating regional peacekeeping systems, if their activities do not contradict the principles of the UN.
Regional Security Systems
The organizations created after the war of the North Atlantic (NATO, 1949) and the Warsaw Pacts (ATS, 1955) declared the maintenance of peace, but they fought a �cold war� among themselves.
It was possible to defuse the situation at the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) by signing the Helsinki Agreement (1975), which affirmed the principles of cooperation between states with different political systems, confidence building and disarmament measures. In accordance with the changing situation in the world, these measures were improved. After the collapse of the social camp ceased to exist ATS.
Since 1995, the CSCE has been renamed the OSCE. In 1999, the Charter for European Security was adopted, proclaiming the principle of collectiveness (the relationship of the security of each state with the security of others). The OSCE itself is designated the main organization for a peaceful settlement in the region.
There are other regional systems of collective security, in particular within the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Under the 1992 treaty, the CIS countries undertake to recognize each other�s sovereignty, resolve disputes peacefully, and provide support in the event of a security threat.
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