What is a skill?
Most of us do not even think about the fact that they constantly use various skills in everyday life. From our article you will learn what skills are, how they are formed and what types there are.
Definition and types of skills
A skill is certain skills (actions) that are developed by habit, and in most cases such actions are performed automatically.
There are three main types of skills:
- Perceptual. Automated skills based on the memory of the senses, when you are familiar with the properties of various objects and phenomena that can be perceived visually, by ear or by touch, taste and smell. Example: if we take an apple off the table with our eyes closed, we will still quickly and completely automatically determine that this apple is based on tactile sensations (the shape and characteristic structure of the peel), smell and taste, biting off a piece.
Intellectual. Automated thinking skills based on the techniques of previously encountered and successfully completed tasks. Example: to solve a math problem,we use various mathematical operations, but we practically don’t have to think about some calculations, since we’ve learned them to a state of automatism (for some, this is 2 times 2, and for someone, sin2x + cos2x = 1 - here it all depends on the depth of knowledge and, accordingly, learned skills).
- Motor. Also automated, fully learned movements, with the help of which you interact with objects and have repeatedly performed certain actions in the past with respect to them. Example: to turn on the computer, we stretch the arm and press a button on the system unit, doing it on the machine, based on past experience.
Skills can be formed unconsciously, that is, without conscious control by the mind, and such skills can be called originally automated. Example: walking - we learn to walk without noticing it. There are also skills that you can control and develop consciously, through training - they are called for the second time automated. Example: walking - here without conscious training you cannot learn to walk as you need for this sport.
The formation of skills is influenced by 3 factors:
- Learning speed: how quickly a person digests information, does any exercises on his own, and also how he motivates himself.
- The initial level of development: what kind of person has the knowledge and skills, as well as how he can explain what he does.
- Possession of a situation (operation): how accurately a person understands the content of the operation and how quickly can move from one situation to another. It is also largely based on automatism, speed, only here we are talking not about mastering one particular skill, but about its mobility.
By the way all these factors are combined in a person, one can judge about the progress in the formation of skills.
Acquiring certain skills and abilities, it is necessary to use them as often as possible for their preservation - otherwise the so-called de-automation may occur. Due to de-automatization, a person loses the skills developed in himself or they are partially impaired. For example, if you constantly did something, and then stopped, returning back to these actions in the future, you will perform them more slowly, uncertainly and inaccurately.In addition, you will specifically focus and control your movements.
Skill formation example
Let us give an example from the industrial sphere: Turner, who has been working for the same machine for several years, performs certain actions day after day that are brought to automaticity. And what will happen to the turner, if he put a new machine with other characteristics and a little other operations? At first, he will simply do his work slowly and inaccurately, but with time, of course, he will master these skills as well. But the speed and degree of assimilation will depend on the factors of formation of skills.
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