• What is humanism?

    Humanity has gone a long way of development, during which views on the essence of man, his nature and needs often changed, various theories and ideologies appeared. Many of them covered self-serving goals with concern for the happiness and well-being of a person, that is, humane causes. So what is humanism?

    Definitions of humanism

    The concept of "humanism" comes from the Latin word humanus - humane (homo - man). That is, humanism is a collection of ideas that recognize the value of the human person.

    In principle, any worldview, the basis of which is respect for a person, recognition of his right to freedom, full development, happiness, is a humanism.

    Thus, the basis of humanism is an elementary humanity, the ability to sympathize, empathize, help. But only to the extent that it does not affect the interests of the person.

    If you want to make someone happy against his will, deciding that it will be better for his own good, this will absolutely not be related to humanism. Even the best of intentions.Accordingly, the denial of all violence towards the individual is what humanism means.

    The history of the development of humanistic ideas

    The value of personality was first comprehended by the philosophers of antiquity. In the 1st c. BC er Cicero used the term humanitas - humanity, defining it as the result of upbringing and education, contributing to the elevation of man.

    In the Middle Ages, the ideas of religious asceticism dominated, human life was viewed as a path of deprivation, its value was determined by compliance with the norms of public morality.

    The development of science, an appeal to the ancient tradition during the Renaissance led to the recognition of the value of the individual as an individual, the human right to perfection, joy and pleasure. Humanism is formed into a separate area of ​​philosophical thought, becoming the dominant worldview. Expressions of these views were F. Petrarch, L.-B. Albert, J. Mirandola, T. Campanella, E. Rotterdam, and others.

    The further development of the idea of ​​humanism is obtained in the Enlightenment, when rationalism, which asserted the primacy of the human mind and scientific knowledge, became the main direction of philosophy.Later, each epoch (XIX-XXI centuries) contributed something of its own to the understanding of humanism.

    The classification of humanism

    The theory of humanism has many directions, but there is no well-established classification. After all, how many philosophical schools, social formations - so many opinions.

    Humanism is considered chronologically: ancient (antiquity) and classical (renaissance).

    There are also directions: liberal, democratic, communist, naturalistic, existentialist.

    There is a humanistic theistic (associated with religious beliefs) and atheistic (secular), that is, secular.

    Secular humanism: what does this mean? This is the modern trend, which originated in the rationalism of the Enlightenment. In contrast to religious humanism, the secular claims the possibility of a moral way of life without faith in a higher power. The ability to develop, thinking, self-realization is considered a merit of the person.

    Secular humanism proclaims freedom from religious authority, the independence of society and education from the control of the church. But, asserting the ideals of justice, happiness, freedom, humanism does not refuse eternal values.

    Having learned what humanism is, the definition of this belief system, let us treat people more humanely, regardless of their religion, race, way of thinking and life. After all, humanism is also tolerance.


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