What is matter?
There is no single concept of what matter is, because there are several concepts: philosophical and physical. Physics defines it as everything that exists, that can be picked up and felt. But about the matter in philosophy is to talk separately.
Matter in philosophy
The concept of matter, as a philosophical concept, began to take shape in ancient times. What is matter in philosophy was first defined by Democritus. He noted that with the help of information on the origin of one substance it is absolutely impossible to explain where another had come from.
Over time, human knowledge was modernized, and ideas about the structure of bodies improved. Scientists have found that bodies are composed of atoms, which are something like small “bricks”. Until about the end of the 19th century, there was a discrete map of the world - then being was represented as an extraordinary interaction of the smallest particles of matter.
Later, completely new information about atoms was discovered. It turned out that they are not simple particles, since the electron was discovered, but very complex in structure.It should also be noted, the emergence of new information that allowed a different view of the concept of the field. Initially, the field was perceived as a space that surrounded an object. This did not contradict the knowledge that matter is a substance, because the field was considered something of an element of substance.
Later they proved that the field is not only an element of the object, but also an independent reality. Together with matter, the field turns into a special type of matter. In this form, the main property becomes not discreteness, but continuity.
Characteristic features of matter: the presence of motion; self-organization; location in time and space, the ability to reflect. The elements of the structure of matter include society, as well as living and inanimate nature.
Without understanding what living matter is, the picture of the world looks flawed. Together with the problems of the formation of the Solar System and the Universe, it is the cornerstone of the worldview. But unlike them, knowledge about living matter is not supported by quantitative data.
The origin of living matter is one of the most complex of the greatest problems that Ginzburg had formulated.
Modern science believes that life originated from inert matter due to the complexity of the structure of organic matter. But conducted over the years, experiments on the reproduction of living matter from inanimate did not give results.
In addition to scientific theory, there are other views on the origin of life. Religious view is based on the fact that everything inanimate and living was created by God. Vedic teaching says that life is a reality of the Universe, which appeared before the formation of matter.
Dark matter is a form of matter that does not emit electromagnetic radiation and does not interact with it. Such a property of this form of substance makes its direct observation impossible. But you can detect its presence by the gravitational effects it forms.
To date, it has been established that the smallest bunches of dark matter occupy a thousand light years, and the mass of such fragments is several dozen times more than the mass of the Sun. For the first time he thought about what dark matter, an astronomer from Switzerland, Fritz Zwicky, happened in the 1930s.
Matter is a very complex concept, therefore scientists and philosophers have been struggling with its definition for tens and hundreds of years.
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